In July 1890 an agreement was settled whereby the entire region north of Lake Victoria was given to Great Britain. In 1894 Great Britain declared the region its protectorate. In alliance with the Kingdom of Buganda, that had during “The Scramble for Africa” made several unsuccessful attempts to retain its own independence against British imperialism, following these attempts Buganda became the centre of the Uganda Protectorate in 1894.
King Omukama Kabalega of Unyoro resisted the efforts of Great Britain, aiming to take control of the kingdom. However, in 1894 Omukama Kabalega was captured and exiled to the Seychelles, and Unyoro was subsequently annexed to the British Empire. Because of Unyoro’s resistance to the British, a portion of the Unyoro kingdom’s territory was given to Buganda and Toro. Under British rule, many Baganda acquired status as colonial administrators, and Buganda became a major producer of cotton and coffee.
WHO WAS General Sir Henry Edward Colvile
Colvile was educated at Eton, and entered the Grenadier Guards in 1870. He was appointed A.D.C. to General the Hon. Sir Leicester Smyth, commanding the forces in South Africa, in 1880. He served on the Intelligence Department of the Suakin Expedition of 1884, was present at the Battles of El Teb and the Battle of Tamai, mentioned in despatches, and received the bronze star, medal, and clasp. He was employed on special service in the Sudan prior to the Nile Expedition of 1884-85, and during that Expedition served as D.A.A.G. ; was mentioned in despatches ; received the clasp, and was created C.B. At the close of the Expedition he was Chief of the Intelligence Department of the Frontier Force ; was present at the Battle of Ginnis; was mentioned in despatches, and was promoted to the rank of Colonel. He was then attached to the Intelligence Department at headquarters, and wrote the official history of the Sudan Campaign.
In 1893 he succeeded the late Sir Gerald Portal as Commissioner (Acting) for Uganda, commanded the Unyoro Expedition, which resulted in the inclusion of that country into the Protectorate ; received the Central Africa Medal, was created Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG), and received the second-class Order of the Brilliant Star of Zanzibar. He was selected for promotion to the rank of Major-General, 12 April 1898.
Later, he became commander of the Infantry Brigade at Gibraltar in early 1899.
He served in the Second Boer War in South Africa 1899-1900. During the early part of the war he commanded the Guards Brigade, including during the Battle of Modder River in November 1899. He took part in the Battle of Magersfontein on 10-11 December 1899, in which the defending Boer force defeated the advancing British forces amongst heavy casualties for the latter. Colvile was mentioned in the despatch from Lord Methuen describing the battle. The following year he was on 10 February 1900 appointed in command of the 9th Division, with the local rank of lieutenant-general whilst so employed. However, in May 1900, while Lord Roberts was closing in on Johannesburg, a Yeomanry battalion under Colvile’s command was cut off and forced to surrender, Colvile was made a scapegoat and sent home. He retired 1901.