Both campaigns were the result of Maori resistance to the continuing encroachment of British settlers in their lands. The first campaign in 1845-47 took the form of a number of small engagements, after which a truce was agreed. The second campaign in 1860-66 was more widespread, and the Maoris proved to be a formidable enemy with their knowledge of the bush and their well-fortified ‘pahs’. British and Colonial casualties in this campaign were quite heavy, and did not always lead to victory.
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